ngân hàng thương mại là gì

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A commercial bank is a financial institution which accepts deposits from the public and gives loans for the purposes of consumption and investment đồ sộ make profit.

It can also refer đồ sộ a ngân hàng or a division of a large ban, which đơn hàng with corporations or a large or middle-sized business, đồ sộ differentiate it from a retail ngân hàng and an investment ngân hàng. Commercial banks include private sector banks and public sector banks.


The name bank derives from the Italian word banco "desk/bench", used during the Italian Renaissance era by Florentine bankers, who used đồ sộ carry out their transactions on a desk covered by a green tablecloth.[1] However, traces of banking activity can be found even in ancient times.

In the United States, the term commercial ngân hàng was often used đồ sộ distinguish it from an investment ngân hàng due đồ sộ differences in ngân hàng regulation. After the Great Depression, through the Glass–Steagall Act, the U.S. Congress required that commercial banks only engage in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited đồ sộ capital market activities. This separation was mostly repealed in 1999 by the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act.


The general role of commercial banks is đồ sộ provide financial services đồ sộ the general public and business, ensuring economic and social stability and sustainable growth of the economy.

In this respect, credit creation is the most significant function of commercial banks. While sanctioning a loan đồ sộ a customer, they tự not provide cash đồ sộ the borrower. Instead, they open a deposit trương mục from which the borrower can withdraw. In other words, while sanctioning a loan, they automatically create deposits.

Primary functions[edit]

  • Commercial banks accept various types of deposits from the public especially from its clients, including saving trương mục deposits and fixed deposits. These deposits are returned whenever the customer demands it after a certain time period.
  • Commercial banks provide loans and advances of various forms, Such as [overdraf] facility, cash credit, bill discounting, money at Điện thoại tư vấn, etc. They also give demand and term loans đồ sộ all types of clients against proper security. They also act as trustees for wills of their customers etc.
  • The function of credit creation is generated on the basis of credit and payment intermediary. Commercial banks use the deposits they absorb đồ sộ make loans. On the basis of kiểm tra circulation and transfer settlement, the loans are converted into derivative deposits. To a certain extent, the derivative funds of are increased by interval times the original deposits which greatly improves the driving force of commercial banks đồ sộ serve the economic development.[2]


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In most countries, commercial banks are heavily regulated and this is typically done by a country's central ngân hàng. They will impose a number of conditions on the banks that they regulate such as keeping ngân hàng reserves and đồ sộ maintain minimum capital requirements.

Services by product[edit]

Commercial banks generally provide a number of services đồ sộ its clients; these can be split into core banking services such as deposits, loans, and other services which are related đồ sộ payment systems and other financial services.

Core products and services[edit]

  • Accepting money on various types of Deposit accounts
  • Lending money by overdraft, and loans both secured and unsecured.
  • Providing transaction accounts
  • Cash management
  • Treasury management
  • Private equity financing
  • Issuing Bank drafts and Bank cheques
  • Processing payments via telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, mạng internet banking, or other payment methods.

Other functions[edit]

Along with core products and services, commercial banks perform several secondary functions. The secondary functions of commercial banks can be divided into agency functions and utility functions.

Agency functions include:

  • To collect and clear cheques, dividends, and interest warrant
  • To make payments of rent, insurance premium
  • To giảm giá khuyến mãi in foreign exchange transactions
  • To purchase and sell securities
  • To act as the trustee, attorney, correspondent and executor
  • To accept tax proceeds and tax returns

Utility functions include:

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  • To provide safe deposit boxes đồ sộ customers
  • To provide money transfer facility
  • To issue traveler's cheques
  • To act as referees
  • To accept various bills for payment: phone bills, gas bills, water bills
  • To provide various cards such as credit cards and debit cards

See also[edit]

  • Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States
  • Glass–Steagall legislation
  • Investment banking
  • Mortgage constant
  • Retail bank
  • Universal bank


Further reading[edit]

  • Brunner, Allan D.; Decressin, Jörg; Hardy, Daniel C. L.; Kudela, Beata (2004-06-21). Germany's Three-Pillar Banking System: Cross-Country Perspectives in Europe. International Monetary Fund. ISBN 1-58906-348-1. ISSN 0251-6365. Abstract
  • Khambata, Dara (1996). The practice of multinational banking: macro-policy issues and key international concepts (2nd ed.). New York: Quorum Books. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-89930-971-2.
  • Commercial Banks directory and guidelines Commercial Banks Archived 2014-01-08 at the Wayback Machine